Tag Archives: periscope

Warship Wednesday, June 16, 2021: Rig for Red

Here at LSOZI, we will take off every Wednesday to look at the old steam/diesel navies of the 1833-1946 time period and profile a different ship each week. These ships have a life, a tale all their own, which sometimes takes them to the strangest places.- Christopher Eger

Warship Wednesday, June 16, 2021: Rig for Red

Called a skalomniscope by American sub wonk Simon Lake, the periscope of sorts was first invented in 1854 by a French guy by the name of Marie Davey, submersibles have had various “sight tubes” ever since. While early boats had a single short scope attached directly to the (single) top hatch (!) by the 1930s it was common for large fleet submarines to have multiple search and attack periscopes in the sail.

Over the years, these devices in U.S. parlance led to the term “periscope liberty” which denoted side use in observing peacetime beaches and pleasure craft with bikini-clad femmes at play and, of course, the old-school “Rig for red” use of red lighting for those who would use the scopes while the boat was at periscope depth at night or was preparing to go topside should the boat to surface in the o-dark-o’clock hours.

Here are some of the cooler periscope shots in the NHHC’s collection, among others.

Vessel sighting mechanism details LC-USZC4-4561 Robert Hudson’s submarine 1806 periscope patent

The eye of the submarine periscope, Gallagher card.

Aircraft carrier Taiho, seen through the periscope of submarine USS Albacore

Japanese destroyer ‘Harusame’, photographed through the periscope of USS Wahoo (SS-238) after she had been torpedoed by the submarine near Wewak, New Guinea, on 24 January 1943

Japanese armed trawler seen through the periscope of USS Albacore (SS-218) during her tenth war patrol. Photo received 17 November 1944 NHHC 80-286279

80-G-13550 Guardfish periscope

Submarine officer sights through a periscope in the submarine’s control room, during training exercises at the Submarine Base, New London, Groton, Connecticut, in August 1943 80-G-K-16013

Periscope death of the destroyer Tade, (1922) Montage of eight photos showing her sinking after being torpedoed by USS Seawolf (SS-197) on 23 April 1943 NH 58329

Shoreline of Makin Island, photographed through a periscope of USS Nautilus (SS-168) on 16 August 1942, the day before U.S. Marine raiders were landed 80-G-11720

Periscope photograph taken from USS Seawolf (SS-197), while she was on patrol in the Philippines-East Indies area in the fall of 1942. 80-G-33184

Periscope photograph made PUFFER SS-268 freighter Teiko Maru (ex-Vichy French steamship D’Artagnan 1943. Torpedo is shown hitting NH 68784

USS Barb 1944 “fiendish antisubmarine weapon bird” blocking Lucky Fluckey’s view on approach. He reportedly sank the Japanese ship with his observation periscope

In January of 1951, the recently GUPPY’d USS Catfish slipped into San Francisco Bay underwater and remained in the harbor for three days taking photos of the Bay Area through their periscope in daylight as part of an authorized mission to see if they could do it with a minimum of civilian reaction. The mission was successful to a degree, as no one called SFPD or the military, as reported by the San Fran Chronicle.

Sighting the target submarine periscope by Georges Schreiber, Navy Art Collection 88-159-ji

USS JOHN HOOD (DD-655) and USS SNOWDEN (DE-246) photographed through a submarine periscope, while underway 1950s USN 1042008

View from the HALIBUT’s periscope of the March 1960 launch of the Regulus missile.

USS Seadragon (SSN 584) crewmembers explore ice pack in the Arctic Ocean through the periscope

President John F. Kennedy through the periscope aboard USS THOMAS EDISON (SSBN-610) 14 April 1962 USN 1112056-F

USS New Jersey (BB-62) seen through the periscope of USS La Jolla SSN-701

Bohol Strait USS Triton spies a local fisherman on April 1 1960

Key West submarines USS Sea Poacher, USS Grenadier, and USS Threadfin wind their way up the Mississippi River toward New Orleans, as seen through the periscope of USS Tirante, Mardi Gras 1963

Periscope view as Captain G.P. Steele searches for an opening in the ice through which to surface, September 1960 USS Sea Dragon SSN-584 USN 1050054

USS Cowpens through the periscope of the nuclear fast attack submarine USS Salt Lake City (SSN 716), Western Pacific, September 1994.

Many modern submarines, including the U.S. Virginia and RN’s Astute class, no longer use traditional periscopes, having long since ditched them in favor of modern telescoping digital optronics masts housing numerous camera and sensor systems with the Navy’s current standard being the AN/BVS-1 photonics mast.

Astute class CM10 Optronic Masts from Thales. periscope

GROTON, Conn. (Dec. 20, 2019) Sailors assigned to the Virginia-class fast-attack submarine USS Minnesota (SSN 783) stand topside as they pull into their homeport at Naval Submarine Base New London in Groton, Conn., Dec 20, 2019, following a deployment. Minnesota deployed to execute the chief of naval operation’s maritime strategy in supporting national security interests and maritime security operations. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Steven Hoskins/Released)

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Warship Wednesday December 17, 2014, the Catfish of the Falklands

Here at LSOZI, we are going to take off every Wednesday for a look at the old steam/diesel navies of the 1859-1946 time period and will profile a different ship each week. These ships have a life, a tale all of their own, which sometimes takes them to the strangest places. – Christopher Eger

Warship Wednesday, December 17, 2014, the Catfish of the Falklands

(Courtesy of CDR Chester C. Culp Jr & submitted by Chris Culp, son of the EB "official" boat photographer of the Catfish (SS-339) from 1945-1953.Photo via Navsource) Click to big up.

(Courtesy of CDR Chester C. Culp Jr & submitted by Chris Culp, son of the EB “official” boat photographer of the Catfish (SS-339) from 1945-1953.Photo via Navsource) Click to big up.

Here we see the Balao-class submarine USS Catfish (SS-339) “swim” at Portland, Oregon, 27 October 1946. In this picture, she submerged in the Willamette River to permit the flowers placed on her deck in honor of the naval dead to float to sea with the outgoing tide. These 311-feet long fleet boats could float in as little as 15-feet of water, swim as above with her decks awash in just over 25 feet, and completely submerge in 50.

(*Note the USS Blueback SS-581, the last U.S. diesel sub to be decommissioned has since 1994 been a museum ship near where this very picture was taken.)

Back to the Catfish

As part of the huge U.S. submarine build-up in World War II, Catfish was a member of the immense 120-ship Balao-class, the largest class of submarines in the United States Navy. US subs, unlike those of many navies of the day, were ‘fleet’ boats, capable of unsupported operations in deep water far from home. Able to range 11,000 nautical miles on their reliable diesel engines, they could undertake 75-day patrols that could span the immensity of the Pacific. Carrying 24 (often unreliable) Mk14 Torpedoes, these subs often sank anything short of a 5000-ton Maru or warship by surfacing and using their deck guns. They also served as the firetrucks of the fleet, rescuing downed naval aviators from right under the noses of Japanese warships.

We have covered ships of this class in the past here at LSOZI (the plucky Perch and Archer the giant killer) but don’t complain, they have lots of great stories.

Laid down 6 Jan 1944 at Electric Boat Company in Groton, Catfish (SS-339) was commissioned 19 March 1945 with less than six months left in the war. By the time she was accepted and transited to the Pacific, she only appeared in Japanese-controlled waters in August 1945, just days before the cease-fire. By the end of September, she was back on the West Coast, based out of San Diego with one battle star for her very quiet World War II service.

Catfish (SS-339) off Mare Island on 9 June 1947 usn photo

Catfish (SS-339) off Mare Island on 9 June 1947, USN photo. Note her WWII profile as commissioned.

Catfish in San Fran, with bluejackets pulling out puppies to make friends. Note the camo’d 40mm Bofors

In 1948-49, she was given a ten-month-long extensive modernization to upgrade her to a more Atomic-era GUPPY II profile. This involved streamlining her hull, having a new sail installed, removing her topside armament, and giving her sensors an update. Her auxiliary engines were removed, her batteries doubled, and a snorkel fitted.

Post guppy Catfish (SS-339) starboard view, underway, probably in Pearl Harbor, HI

Post guppy Catfish (SS-339) starboard view, underway, probably in Pearl Harbor, HI

USS CATFISH (SS-339) off the Mare Island rock wall following her GUPPY conversion in 1949.

June 1950 found her on a routine West Pac cruise when the Korean conflict broke out and, along with USS Pickerel, was the first submarines to make war patrols under a UN flag. Like her WWII service, Korea proved a quiet war for the Catfish, making two combat patrols in the area keeping a sharp eye out for encroaching Chinese and Soviet ships.

In January of 1951, the recently GUPPY’d Catfish slipped into San Francisco Bay underwater and remained in the harbor for three days taking photos of the Bay Area through their periscope in daylight as part of an authorized mission to see if they could do it with a minimum of civilian reaction. The mission was successful to a degree, as no one called SFPD or the military, as reported by the San Fran Chronicle.

Over the next two decades, she made regular cruises and by 1968 had conducted her 6,000th dive. She was used both as a fleet boat and as a training platform for Naval Reserve bubbleheads. Notably, she was one of the few submarines that were given the chance to sink a warship in peacetime when she sent the retired Barnegat-class seaplane tender ex-USS Suisan (AVP-53) to the bottom in an October 1966 Sinkex just after her last refit. At the time, she had augmented her WWII-era MK 14 fish with more modern Mk 37 ASW torpedoes against submarines.

USSCATFISH

Fresh off her sinking she made an appearance in a third U.S. war, spending time in Vietnam waters from Jan-Oct 1967 and again from March-Sept 1970. She engaged in lifeguard duty for aircrews lost at sea, as well as hung close (within 100 yards, close enough to catch mortar rounds according to VA records,) to shore for reasons likely still classified.

Speaking of classified, Catfish had already been there unofficially in 1962, laying off Dong Hoi, North Vietnam keeping tabs on that country’s navy in Operation Wise Tiger, quietly transmitting intelligence information that would, in turn, be used by the CIA to run a group of Nasty boats and armed sampans in black ops all along the coast.

By 1971, the aging 27-year old smoke boat had seen better days and the U.S. Navy was increasingly all-nuclear when it came to submarines.

Under new management

However she still had some life left in her and on 1 July 1971, the same day she was decommissioned and struck from the Naval List, officers and men of the Argentine Navy took possession of their newest submarine through the Military Assistance Program, which they promptly renamed the ARA Santa Fe (S-21).

As ARA Santa Fe

As ARA Santa Fe. Note this is her final sail design, added after 1960.

Porpoising in Argentine service

Porpoising in Argentine service

The Argentines also took possession of Catfish‘s sister ship, USS Chivo SS 341, whom they renamed ARA Santiago Del Estero (S-22). Already extensively worn out, the two ships sailed for Argentine waters for another decade of service without the benefit of a refit. During that time, they extensively prowled the areas around the Islas Malvinas (otherwise known as the Falklands), which Argentina had an increasingly militant claim towards.

Argentine submarine ARA Santa Fe (S-21) in Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, 1978. Via Postales Navales

By 1981, sistership Chivo/Santiago Del Estero was laid up with bad batteries and was increasingly cannibalized to keep the Catfish/Santa Fe afloat as two new German-designed diesel attack boats were to replace the pair within a year or two. In fact, Santa Fe was scheduled to be decommissioned in August 1982, but history had a funny story to tell before that could happen.

Falklands!

ARA Santa Fe in Argentine service

ARA Santa Fe in Argentine service

In the first part of 1982, the Argentine military junta decided that it would be an easy walk over to quickly occupy the Falkland Islands from an ailing British military machine. The colony only had a garrison of 40 Royal Marines and its guardship, a supped-up supply boat with a red hull by the name of Endurance, was slated for retirement. The Brits had little power-projection capability, having scrapped their full-size aircraft carrier just years before, and were planning to sell even their tiny new Harrier carrier, HMS Invincible, to Australia. Further, the Brits were 8,000 miles away while the Argentines just 400.

With that, a military expedition was launched in which a small Argentine force set up shop on remote (and unoccupied) South Georgia Island, a frozen extension of the Falklands, and, when the Endurance and a small Marine detachment sailed for Hoth, a much larger Argentine task force seized the Falklands.

On the early morning hours of April 2, 1982, Santa Fe, by nature of her shallow draft for a large submarine, helped to land some 120 Buzos Tácticos, an elite force of Argentine naval commandos, just outside Port Stanley. These commandos assaulted the (empty) Royal Marine barracks at Moody Brook and took prisoner after a short series of lop-sided skirmishes, the Royal Marines in Port Stanley.

Santa Fe landed these Argentine commandos (Seen left with Sterling submachine gun) in this infamous photo of Royal Marines surrendering

Santa Fe landed these Argentine commandos (Seen left with Sterling submachine gun) in this infamous photo of Royal Marines surrendering

After this, Santa Fe headed to South Georgia Island to reinforce the Argentine garrison there after HMS Endurance had left the area. LCDR Horatico Bicain, commander of the submarine, which had last seen a dry-dock in the 1960s and had been advised his Mk14 torpedoes were so deteriorated that they were more dangerous to his submarine than to a British ship, was ordered to lay low and keep out of the way.

However, the Brits would be back just three weeks later and in force.

While the Argentines had four submarines in the stable and more on the drawing board, somehow Santa Fe was the best fully operational boat they had. After all, the even more worn out Chivo/Santiago Del Estero was laid up, the countries best and most experienced submariners were training for forthcoming new boats in West Germany, and the Type 209 submarine San Luis was crewed largely by inexperienced officers and men and had so many cranky systems that it was combat ineffective, even though it was able to close with the RN to within torpedo range. 

The mismatch between Argentine and British submarines, Falklands 1982

In the opening moves of recapturing the Falklands, the Royal Navy took South Georgia, where Santa Fe was hold up with a small Argentine garrison, first.

From Lieutenant Chris Parry, Flight Observer of a Westland Wessex helicopter (XP142 #406- “Humphrey”) from the destroyer HMS Antrim off South Georgia on Sunday, April 25, 1982:

It’s a submarine,’ said our pilot, Lieutenant Commander Ian Stanley. ‘You’re joking,’ I said.

I quickly worked out the ballistic calculations for the movement of the submarine. He was heading 310 degrees northwest at eight knots. Talk about making it easy for us: we could just fly along the submarine’s track – and, when we were above, release. I fused both the depth charges.

Ian then spoiled it for everyone: ‘Are you sure that it is not one of ours? It could be Conqueror (one of our nuclear-powered subs).’

I was craning my neck and head trying to see. Frustrated, I asked, ‘Has he got a flat casing and a tapering flat fin?’

‘It’s the Argie, no doubt about it,’ came the reassuring call from Stewart in the left-hand seat. ‘OK,’ said Ian, ‘are you sure that we have the RoE [Rules of Engagement]?’

‘Of course,’ I replied, reflecting the briefing of the previous night. ‘He’s fair game.’

What a moment. It is every Observer’s dream to have a real live submarine caught in the trap with two depth charges ready to go! I thought about the men we might be about to kill, but Ian started calling down the range.

As Ian called: ‘On top, now, now, now,’ I saw the fin of a submarine pass under the aircraft through the gap around the sonar housing and I released both charges.

Ian flipped the cab around violently to starboard to see the results. As we turned, the whole of the aft section of the submarine disappeared and two large explosions detonated either side of it. Plumes of water shot up.

It looked as if she was in the process of diving when we struck her, but the explosions lifted her aft end up and out of the water. She then began careering violently as I reported back to Antrim.

Simultaneously, I asked Plymouth to launch her Wasp helicopter armed with AS-12 missiles, since the submarine still posed a threat.

The low cloud was lifting, as if a curtain was being raised on a stage, to reveal a stunning backdrop of peaks and glaciers. Antrim and the frigates Brilliant and Plymouth were closing at high speed from the northeast.

Plymouth’s Wasp fired an AS-12, which hit the submarine aft on the casing, causing a number of plates to fly off. The submarine was also attacked by Wasps from Endurance. We returned to Antrim, refueled, and relaunched with one depth charge to witness the final stages of the submarine flopping alongside the British Antarctic Survey jetty and the Grytviken whaling settlement on South Georgia. It was obvious that the submarine was no longer a threat and her ship’s company was streaming ashore. So we returned to Antrim and everyone was in a high state of excitement. It was all Boy’s Own Annual stuff!

In all, the hardy little diesel smoke boat was subjected to a combined attack from six (6) Royal Navy helicopters: one Westland Wessex, one Westland Lynx (from HMS Brilliant), and four Westland Wasps.

Wasp HAS.1, hanging AS.12 wire-guided missiles, presumably for anti-small boat work from HMS Minerva 1960s

The wonky-looking Wasp HAS.1, hanging a few AS.12 wire-guided missiles, presumably for anti-small boat work. While this picture is from HMS Minerva in the late 1960s, Catfish/Santa Fe faced a nearly identical foe in 1982.

These aircraft attacked the sub with machine guns, two depth charges (that did the most damage), one MK-46 torpedo, and eight AS-12 missiles, several of which peppered the topside of the Sante Fe, including breaching her sail, thus making it impossible to submerge.

"The Hunt" Painted by Daniel Bechennec shows the moment the Westland Wasp HAS.1 XS527 from HMS Endurance launches a AS-12 missile on the submarine ARA Santa Fe This hardy helicopter, crewed by Tony Ellerbeck and David Wells, attacked the Santa Fe three times in quick succession, firing a total of 6 AS-12s at the boat.

“The Hunt” Painted by Daniel Bechennec shows the moment the Westland Wasp HAS.1 XS527 from HMS Endurance launches an AS-12 missile on the submarine ARA Santa Fe This hardy helicopter, crewed by Tony Ellerbeck and David Wells, attacked the Santa Fe three times in quick succession, firing a total of 6 AS-12s at the boat.

Amazingly, with her sailors firing back at the slow British helicopters with small arms from her frozen decks, the crippled boat made it back to Grytviken harbor on South Georgia and landed her 76-man crew without a loss while setting booby traps on board the abandoned sub. They surrendered along with the rest of the Argentine garrison later that night.

"Off Limits" per HMS Endurance

“Off Limits” per HMS Endurance

The Brits, afraid the battered hulk would sink at the only dock on the island, the next day allowed some of her crew, under guard, to board her and move the sub to a more isolated shallow area at the old whaling jetty where she could settle on the bottom in peace. Tragically, when Argentine Navy Machinist First Class Felix Oscar Artuso moved too fast for the likes of a Royal Marine commando on board, he was shot and became the Catfish/Santa Fe‘s only wartime fatality in four conflicts over 38 years of service.

LCPL Jeremy “Rocky” Rowe, the then-23-year-old Royal Marine who shot Artuso, later had to sell his South Atlantic Medal and General Service Medal at auction after spending his savings while he recovered from cancer.

In 2019, Mr. Rowe, 60, said:

‘The shooting was a split second decision to stop him from throwing levers at the forward end of the control after receiving a phone call from the fin end holding his captain.

‘What was gong through my mind was a precarious position with many possibilities that could go wrong, i.e prisoners could pick up a weapon, fire a torpedo, it was listing and smoke coming out of it.

“It was claustraphobic and many things were happening.I had a Browning automatic pistol and warned him to touch nothing in the room clearly.I had received instructions from a naval officer about the levers which would sink the sub, which had open hatches. Artuso leapt for them so I shot him. Sometime after I was told our officer had the levers the wrong way round.”

Another view of her battered sail

Another view of her battered sail

Santa Fe hundido gacetamarinera

Her crew removed, the old girl technically became a British war prize but was dead in the water, full of moody munitions and old batteries.

Royal Navy Divers work to re-float the ARA Santa Fe (S-21)

Sunk hard

Sunk hard. This photo was as she was being lifted post-war by the RN

Grytvken South Georgia in the Background with the Sante Fe under tow

ARA Santa Fe (S-21) towed to beaching point

They towed her to a more out of the way location in June 1982 after the Falklands conflict ended and then in Operation Okehampton she was raised by the Brits, and in Feb 1985 towed “about 12 miles out from the mouth of Cumberland Bay, she lurched to starboard and started taking on water. The tow line broke and she sank to a depth of about 1176 feet… and lies there today.”

SANTA FE being towed out on 21 FEB 1985 from King Edward Cove

SANTA FE being towed out on 21 FEB 1985 from King Edward Cove

The grave of Felix Artuso, ARA, is on Grytviken where he was buried with full military honors and is maintained by the British government.

gd09bm

There is a USS Catfish Association that keeps her memory alive in the U.S. while in Argentina several Malvinas groups treasure the memory of that country’s lost submersible.

Eight Balao‘s are preserved in the country, making them the most popular submarine museum ship class.

USS Batfish (SS-310) at War Memorial Park in Muskogee, Oklahoma
USS Becuna (SS-319) at Independence Seaport Museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
USS Bowfin (SS-287) at USS Bowfin Submarine Museum & Park in Honolulu, Hawaii
USS Clamagore (SS-343) at Patriot’s Point in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina
USS Ling (SS-297) at New Jersey Naval Museum in Hackensack, New Jersey
USS Lionfish (SS-298) at Battleship Cove in Fall River, Massachusetts
USS Pampanito (SS-383) at San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park
USS Razorback (SS-394) at Arkansas Inland Maritime Museum in North Little Rock,

Further, when in the UK, you can pay Humphrey a visit when at the Royal Navy’s Fleet Air Museum where he is preserved and has quite the war record on her fuselage.

MoS2 Template Master

Humphrey’s observer, Chris Parry, retired in 2008 as a Rear Admiral in the Royal Navy and is unlikely to forget the Catfish of the Falklands any time soon.

(Sources: Histarmar.com.ar, elsnorkel.com.ar, DANFS, Navsource, USS Catfish Assoc homepage, and Revista Defensa)

Specs:

DibGuppyI-II

Displacement, Surfaced: 1,526 t., Submerged 2,242 t.
Length 311′ 9″
Beam 27′ 3″
Draft 15′ 3″
Speed, Surfaced 20.25 kts, Submerged 8.75 kts
Cruising Range, 11,000 miles surfaced at 10kts
Submerged Endurance, 48 hours at 2kts; Patrol Endurance 75 days.
Operating Depth, 400 ft.
Complement 6 Officers, 60 Enlisted (WWII) 75 Post-Guppy
Propulsion, diesel-electric reduction gear with four main generator engines, General Motors diesel engines, HP 5400, Fuel Capacity 118,000, four General Electric motors, HP 2,740, two 126-cell main storage batteries, two propellers. (As commissioned)
Post Guppy: three GM 16-278A diesel, 2 direct drive motors of 2700 HP each, 504-cell battery bank.
Armament (fish) ten 21″ torpedo tubes, six forward, four aft, 24 torpedoes,
Guns: One 5″/25 deck gun, one 40mm gun, one 20mm gun, two .50 cal. machine guns; (All removed in Guppy conversion)

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